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Тема 6.8. ИСТОРИЯ КОМПЬЮТЕРИЗАЦИИ (COMPUTERIZATION HISTORY)

1. Отработка новой лексики. Особенности перевода интернациональных слов.

2. Словообразование.

3. Чтение.

4. Говорение. Работа с устными высказываниями по теме.

Отработка новой лексики. Особенности перевода интернациональных слов.

ЗАДАНИЯ

1.1. Найдите транскрипцию приведённых ниже слов в англо-русском словаре. Произнесите слова в соответствии с транскрипцией (см. Приложение1). Прослушайте слова (см. Введение.п.2). (Find a transcription of the following words in the English-Russian dictionary. Say the words according to the transcription (see Application1). Listen to the words (see Introduction. item2.)

compute – вычислять

computer - вычислитель

mechanical - механический

device – прибор, устройство

invent - изобретать

scientist - ученый

generation - поколение

binary system - двоичная система

integrated schemes - интегральные схемы

personal computers - персональные компьютеры

World Wide Web - Всемирная паутина


1.2. Найдите в тексте «COMPUTERIZATION HISTORY» указанные в задании 1.1. слова. Запишите слова в контексте (см. Введение. п.1). (Find words pointed in the task 1.1. in the text «COMPUTERIZATION HISTORY». Write down the words in a context (see Introduction. item1.)

COMPUTERIZATION HISTORY

A computer takes the same place as a phone, a car or television in our everyday life. The word "computer" was from the English words "to compute," "computer". In 1642 the first mechanical computing device was invented by the French scientist Blaise Pascal. That device represented a machine to add numbers.

Electronic computers of the first generation, the hard and slow-moving calculators, were the pioneers of computer technology. In 1936, British scientist Alan Turing created a formal model of the machine - Turing machine. In 1938, German scientist Konrad Zus has created the world's first electronic computer Z1, he used the binary system to handle the numbers. In 1942 the lamp computer was created in the USA. In place of the first generation of computers came the second generation of computers, semiconductors were the elemental base of those machines. In 1955 there was the first computer on transistors (USA). In 1964 the IBM company arranged the production of electronic computers on integrated elements. The third generation machines appeared and commercial and industrial firms began to buy them. Created in 1971 microprocessors by Intel corporation had extraordinary commercial success. In 1976 the first fourth-generation machines appeared on big integrated schemes in the United States. So briefly, the prehistory of the personal computer looked.

In the same 1976 two twenty years' American technicians, Stephane Voznyak and Steve Jobs, created the first small, but the promising personal computer. It named "Apple" and was originally designed for video games, but also had opportunities for programming. In a short time Jobs's firm turned into the large company. So other firms paid attention to the market of personal computers.

After the fourth generation of computers built on superbig integrated schemes, was expected to create the fifth generation of computers focused on creation of devices capable to thinking imitation. From 1982 to 1992 the researches according to the program of development of artificial intelligence with productivity of a supercomputer was conducted in Japan. The program ended in failure, even its intermediate purposes had been unattainable in the technological plan.

In 1991, Tim Berners-Lee of the Geneva lab practical physics presented the hypermedia system for the Internet - World Wide Web - the era of the Internet began.

Pentium — a trademark of several generations of microprocessors the x86, produced by Intel corporation since 1993. In 1997, Microsoft corporation began release a processor Intel Pentium II, in 1999 - Intel Pentium III, in 2000 - Intel Pentium IV. In 2006, Intel corporation introduced the processors on the core Cedar Mill, which produced a new technical process. Today Intel corporation offers the most productive processors for desktop computers.

1.3. Прочитайте приведенные ниже слова. Обратите внимание на особенности перевода интернациональных слов (см. Введение. п.3.). Попытайтесь перевести слова без словаря. Запишите перевод этих слов, сверяясь со словарём. (Read the following words. Pay attention to the translation of international words (see Introduction. item3). Try to translate these words without a dictionary. Write down the translation of these words, referring to the dictionary.)

microprocessor________________

electronic____________________

corporation___________________

video________________________

company_____________________





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